There are numerous branches or disciplines of chemistry. Organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry are the five main branches.
What Is Chemistry?
Chemistry is a natural science, just like physics and biology. Chemistry and these other disciplines have a great deal in common. The science of chemistry is concerned with the study of matter. Atoms, compounds, chemical reactions, and chemical bonds are all included. Chemists research matter’s properties, structure, and interactions with other matter.
What Is Organic Chemistry?
Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry concerned with the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds containing carbon in covalent bonding. The structural formula is determined by studying the structure. Physical and chemical properties, as well as chemical reactivity, are all studied to better understand how they behave. The chemical synthesis of natural products, drugs, and polymers, as well as the laboratory and theoretical (in silico) study of individual organic molecules, are all examples of organic reactions.
Hydrocarbons (compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen) and carbon-based compounds containing other elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus (found in many biochemicals), and halogens, are among the chemicals studied in organic chemistry.
Organic compounds are the building blocks of all life on Earth and make up the vast majority of chemicals. Carbon’s valence of four—formal single, double, and triple bonds, as well as structures with delocalized electrons—allows for a wide range of structural diversity in organic compounds, as well as a wide range of applications. Many commercial products, such as pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, and agrichemicals, as well as products made from them, including lubricants, solvents, plastics, fuels, and explosives, are made from them. Organometallic chemistry and biochemistry, as well as medicinal chemistry, polymer chemistry, and materials science, are all covered by organic chemistry.
There are 5 sub-branches of Organic Chemistry that are briefly discussed below.
Stereochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies and manipulates the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that make up the structure of molecules. Stereochemistry is the study of stereoisomers, which have the same molecular formula and bonded atom sequence (constitution) but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. Stereochemistry encompasses all aspects of chemistry, including organic, inorganic, biological, physical, and supramolecular chemistry.
2. Medicinal Chemistry
Medicinal chemistry is a field that combines chemistry, particularly synthetic organic chemistry, with pharmacology and other biological disciplines to work on the design, chemical synthesis, and commercialization of pharmaceutical agents or bioactive molecules (drugs).
3. Organometallic Chemistry
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, which are chemical compounds with at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, such as alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals, as well as metalloids such as boron, silicon, and selenium.
Organometallic compounds are widely used as stoichiometric catalysts in research and industrial chemical reactions, as well as in the role of catalysts to increase the rates of such reactions (e.g., as in homogeneous catalysis), with target molecules including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and a wide range of other practical products
4. Physical Organic Chemistry
Physical organic chemistry is an organic chemistry discipline that focuses on the relationship between chemical structures and reactivity, specifically by applying physical chemistry experimental tools to the study of organic molecules. The rates of organic reactions, relative chemical stabilities of the starting materials, reactive intermediates, transition states, and products of chemical reactions, as well as non-covalent aspects of solvation and molecular interactions that influence chemical reactivity, are all areas of research.
5. Polymer Chemistry
Polymer chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies polymers and macromolecules’ chemical synthesis, structure, and chemical and physical properties. Polymer chemistry principles and methods can be applied to a variety of other chemistry sub-disciplines such as organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and physical chemistry. Polymeric structures can be found in a wide range of materials, from fully inorganic metals and ceramics to DNA and other biological molecules; however, polymer chemistry is most commonly associated with synthetic, organic compositions.
Meanwhile, organic chemistry is an important branch of chemistry to understand. Thus, organic chemistry is divided into five sub-branches, each with its own set of sub-branches, and this field is used to fill gaps in people’s lives. Organic chemistry was used to compound many products in many industries. As a result, chemistry knowledge is essential in everyday life.