Essentially, all biotechnology products are the result of chemistry (or re qualified as biochemistry). Every cellular function, from mitotic division, to energy production, and to eventual programmed cell death, is the result of a chemical reaction.

Meanwhile, applied genetics and genetic engineering make room in the revolution of modern biotechnology.

Biotechnology

Biotechnology involves integrating living organisms and bio processes in order to create or modify breakthrough products for a specific use.
In other words, bio technologists manipulate organisms or components of a biological system to create new products or processes. They study
the physical, genetic, and chemical characteristics of cells and tissues and explore industrial applications for them. Bio technologists work in
fields like agriculture, medicine, waste treatment, and food production.

For example, a biotechnology company might produce seeds for crops that are disease-resistant, or plants that are drought-resistant.

Common employment areas in biotechnology include:

• Health care
• Crop production and agriculture
• Nonfood uses of crops
• Consumer products (e.g., biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil)
• Environmental sector
• Biofuels

Some practitioners classify biotech areas according to colour. For example, blue biotechnology refers to the study and use of marine-based essential compounds, while white biotechnology refers to industrial applications.

Biotechnology is an expanding field. New subfields continue to emerge as advances in science and technology open fresh areas of exploration and growth.

Analytical Methods

Current challenges in biological research are centred on the identification and quantification of Chemical Analytes: from small molecules (such as signalling molecules, drug metabolites or metalions) to proteins and sub-cellular structures. Analytical Methods are integral to applications of all the biotechnology.

They can be classified into chemical & physical analytical methods. For example, an analysis may involve a chemical reaction to generate
a coloured substance, followed by the use of a spectrophotometer, which functions according to purely physical principles, to measure
the concentration of the coloured substance.

Here, we’ll consider the breadth of analytical chemistry’s role in the biosciences.

Analytical solutions can be divided into:

1) Technologies
The development and adaptation of spectrometric and spectroscopic instrumentation to gain information about the chemical content of a
biological system.
2) Reagents

Chemicals that react selectively with species of interest, enabling their specific detection from within the complex environment of the body.
There is much benefit in applying more than one analytical approach to a single investigation, to answer questions that no single technique
can achieve on its own. Furthermore, since each technique has inherent advantages and disadvantages, these approaches are therefore
complementary to one another.

For example, an understanding of the metal homeostasis of a cell requires understanding of its oxidation state and coordination
environment.

Analytical Biochemistry
Analytical biochemistry is applied in every biological research paradigm in some way, shape or form. Observing the biochemistry of
the cell is itself dependent on our ability to manipulate chemical environments within a biological system to instigate a measurable
response.

The number of scientists working at the interface of biology and chemistry has exponentially increased in the past few decades.
As a general statement, in the modern era, better communication and collaboration between chemists and biologists has significantly
reduced the gap between technological innovation and practical biological research. The first application of analytical chemistry to the biosciences can be traced back to histology, where chemical stains for proteins and cellular features have been used for centuries. After the invention of the light microscope and its first use in the biosciences described by Marcello Malpighi in the 1600s, scientists searched for new and better ways to visualise the components of the cell, and in doing so harnessed the diversity of cell biochemistry to selectively stain unique
features, often through simple trial and error.

How analytical chemistry can solve biological problems?

Analytical chemistry has, without a doubt, contributed enormously to studies of the biosciences.

There is no shortage of chemical analysis techniques that are available to the modern biologist. In the field of metal imaging alone, a vast
array of technologies, from mass spectrometry to emission spectroscopy and fluorescent sensors, a biologist has the freedom to pick and choose the appropriate technique that is suited to the application he or she is using.

Bottomline:

It is encouraging that more biological research laboratories are actively integrating dedicated analytical chemistry.
Biotechnology is helping to heal the world by harnessing nature’s own toolbox and using our own genetic makeup to heal and guide lines of
research by:

• Reducing rates of infectious disease
• Saving millions of children’s lives
• Changing the odds of serious, life-threatening conditions affecting millions around the world
• Tailoring treatments to individuals to minimise health risks and side effects
• Creating more precise tools for disease detection
• Combating serious illnesses and everyday threats confronting the developing world

Biotechnology uses biological processes such as fermentation and harnesses biocatalysts such as enzymes, yeast, and other microbes to become microscopic manufacturing plants. Biotech is helping to fuel the world by:

• Streamlining the steps in chemical manufacturing processes by 80% or more
• Lowering the temperature for cleaning clothes and potentially saving $4.1 billion annually
• Improving manufacturing process efficiency to save 50% or more on operating costs
• Reducing use of and reliance on petrochemicals
• Using biofuels to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 52% or more
• Decreasing water usage and waste generation
• Tapping into the full potential of traditional biomass waste products

Biotechnology improves crop insect resistance, enhances crop herbicide tolerance and facilitates the use of more environmentally sustainable farming practices. Biotech is helping to feed the world by:

• Generating higher crop yields with fewer inputs

• Lowering volumes of agricultural chemicals required by crops- limiting the run-off of these products into the environment

• Using biotech crops that need fewer applications of pesticides and that allow farmers to reduce tilling farmland
• Developing crops with enhanced nutrition profiles that solve vitamin and nutrient deficiencies
• Producing foods free of allergens and toxins such as mycotoxin
• Improving food and crop oil content to help improve cardiovascular health.

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